Leaderless Resistance Publishing History

The Amoss Version – 1953 & 1962

The concept of Leaderless Resistance was developed by Ulius “Pete” Louis Amoss in 1953 to encourage resistance to Soviet repression in Eastern Europe.

Amoss was an operative in the WWII Office of Strategic Services (OSS). After the war Amoss established a research center International Services of Information (INFORM).and a newsletter INFORMto fight communism.

Unlike Louis Beam, Amoss had no connection to organized White Supremacist groups and had no interest in overthrowing the United States government. On the contrary, Amoss was frustrated that the CIA and other U.S. intelligence agencies were using outdated methods to build resistance against communism in Eastern Europe.

According to Amoss, resistance cells with members who made contact with U.S. intelligence agents or émigré ethnic anticommunist organizations were being penetrated by Soviet and Soviet Bloc intelligence agencies, broken up, the members tortures, and sometimes executed. Therefore, Amoss urged U.S. intelligence policy be shifted from an old-fashioned hierarchical model such as that used in WWII with resistance organizations, and refocused on encouraging “Leaderless Resistance to destabilize and subvert Soviet occupation of Eastern European countries such as Poland, the example he cites in detail in his essay. Amoss warned that traditional hierarchical underground cells organized by the CIA in Eastern Europe were being penetrated and liquidated by Soviet and Eastern Bloc counterintelligence operations

Amoss: “we do not need ‘leaders’; we need leading ideas. These ideas would produce leaders. The masses would produce them and the ideas would be their inspiration. Therefore, we must create these ideas and convey them to the restless peoples concerned with them.”

In 1961 leaflets were airdropped over Cuba by anti-Castro Cuban exiles and their allies with close ties to the Central Intelligence Agency. The leaflets used the concept of Leaderless Resistance and called for the creation of “Phantom Cells” (Celulas Fantasmas).

There was no apparent connection between Amoss and the leaflets, according to Michael Paulding, who is writing a book on an early OSS figure and has studied Amoss and his work. Amoss died in November 1961, a few months after the failed CIA-orchestrated Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba. Amoss’s Leaderless Resistance essay is republished posthumously in 1962 in the INFORM newsletter, having been rewritten from the 1953 original by a freelancer, according to Paulding.

Also issued after the 1962 version is a 4-page flyer credited to Amoss, with 3 July 1953 at the end, and the notation after Amoss’s name “Reprinted from INFORM, Issue No. 6205, 17 April 1962.

The Amoss essay is said by some authors to have been republished in a 1963 Paladin Press edition of the revolutionary instruction manual 150 Questions for a Guerrilla by Alberto Bayo Giroud. No such edition has been located to date by PRA, and repeated attempts to contact Paladin Press for confirmation have been ignored. The publisher is related to Soldier of Fortune magazine, which is popular in the Patriot and White Supremacist movements, in which Louis Beam was circulating. One edition of the Bayo booklet did contain photographs and text supporting the training of anti-Castro guerrillas.

According to the Paladin press blurb: “This classic on the tactics of the guerrilla fighter was written by the mentor of Fidel Castro and Che Guevara. In question and answer format, General Bayo addresses how guerrilla units should be organized, how to defend a conquered city, the skills of the perfect guerrilla and how to attack a town.”


Bayo, Alberto, General, 150 Questions for a Guerrilla, Trans. Hugo Hartenstein and Dennis Harber, ed. Robert K Brown, Colorado: Panther Publications, 1963.

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The Cuba Flyers

View Flyer in PDF Format

In 1961 leaflets were airdropped over Cuba by anti-Castro Cuban exiles and their allies with close ties to the CIA. The leaflets used the concept of Leaderless Resistance and called for the creation of “Phantom Cells” (Celulas Fantasmas). There is no apparent connection between Amoss and the leaflets, according to Michael Paulding, who is writing a book on an early OSS figure and has studied Amoss and his work. Amoss died in November 1961, a few months after the failed CIA-orchestrated Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba. Amoss’s Leaderless Resistance essay was republished posthumously in 1962 in Amoss’s INFORM newsletter, having been rewritten from the 1953 original by a freelancer, according to Paulding.

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150 Questions for a Guerrilla

The Amoss essay is said by some authors to have been republished in a 1963 Paladin Press edition of the revolutionary instruction manual 150 Questions for a Guerrilla by Alberto Bayo Giroud.

No such edition has been located to date by PRA, and repeated attempts to contact Paladin Press for confirmation have been ignored. The publisher is related to Soldier of Fortune magazine, which is popular in the Patriot and White Supremacist movements, in which Louis Beam was circulating. One edition of the Bayo booklet did contain photographs and text supporting the training of anti-Castro guerrillas.

This book was published by Panther Publications in Boulder, Colorado. Translation by Hugo Hartensterin and Dennis Harber, and edited by Robert K. Brown.

The first English edition, first printing, in February 1963 contained an eight-page apendix calling for support for Cuban exiles and containing several photographs of training.

The second printing, July 1963, did not contain this material. Some phrasing and text in the second printing differed slightly from the first edition.

The second printing lacked the appendix on support for Cuban exiles, and had a revised cover graphic

 Robert K. Brown founded Panther publications and co-founded Paladin publications, as well as Soldier of Fortune magazine, which he still publishes and edits. His role in Paladin publications, created in 1970 as a partnership, ceased in 1974. The next year he founded Soldier of Fortune magazine.


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Louis Beam is a White supremacist and former Ku Klux Klan leader tied to neonazi and race hate organizing in the United States. Beam is often credited with the development of the concept of Leaderless Resistance, but in both vesions of the essay he published in 1983 and again in 1992, he clearly stated that the concpt was originated by Amoss. Beam, however, dates the Amoss essay as being published in 1962, when its first appearance was in 1953.

Beam cannot recall when or where he first saw the Amoss essay, and complains that his files were seized by the FBI so it is impossible for him to check his records. [interview]

Beam published the newsletters the Inter-Klan Newsletter & Survival Alert and the Seditionist.

 

It was in the the Inter-Klan Newsletter & Survival Alert that Beam proposed an international computer network linking White supremacists in 1984. Although Beam is often credited with launching the first online race hate communications system, it was Dietz whose system went online first, in early 1984, and perhaps as early as late 1983. Read it Here!.

Beam played a role in the development of the armed citizens militia movement in the early 1990s, but did not develop the concept of Leaderless Resistance for the Militias, a movement that overlapped with the organized White Supremacist movement, but according to most scholars, was distinct and independent from it.

1983

Louis Beam, “Leaderless Resistance,” Inter-Klan Newsletter & Survival Alert, undated, circa May 1983, pages not numbered. On file at Political Research Associates.

Beam republished his version of Leaderless Resistance in 1992 in the Seditionist.

Louis Beam, “Leaderless Resistance,” The Seditionist, 12 (February 1992);pp. 12-13. Text athttp://www.louisbeam.com/leaderless.htm.