Heroes Know…Endnotes

[1] This story is drawn from Chip Berlet, ‘Hate Groups, Racial Tension and Ethnoviolence in an Integrating Chicago Neighborhood 1976-1988, in Research in Political Sociology, Vol. 9, The Politics of Social Inequality, eds. Betty A. Dobratz, Lisa K. Walder, and Timothy Buzzell, 2001, pp. 117–163.

[2] The majority of this study is a literature review and sketch of concepts with an expanded set of cites devised to support the underlying premise of the conference and the resulting articles. Portions of this study have been adapted from previously published work as noted in the endnotes as appropriate.

[3] Jack Levin, The Violence of Hate: Confronting Racism, Anti-Semitism, and Other Forms of Bigotry (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2002),

[4] Mark Frohardt and Jonathan Temin, Use and Abuse of Media in Vulnerable Societies, Special Report 110, Washington, DC, United States Institute of Peace. October 2003, http://permanent. access. gpo. gov/websites/usip/www. usip. org/pubs/specialreports/sr110.pdf, (accessed 26/9/2012). Although an excellent study, the report is flawed by the failure to include a single footnote. See also Kofi A. Annan, Allan Thompson, and International Development Research Centre of Canada, The Media and the Rwanda Genocide (Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 2007).

[5] Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism, (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973).

[6] Ibid., p. 385.

[7] Chip Berlet, ‘Islamophobia, Antisemitism and the Demonized “Other”: Parallels among bigotries reflect the conspiratorial mindset’, EXTRA! Magazine of Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, August 2012, http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=4589, (accessed 26/9/2012).

[8] Chip Berlet ‘Protocols to the Left, Protocols to the Right: Conspiracism in American Political Discourse at the Turn of the Second Millennium’, in The Paranoid Apocalypse: A Hundred-year Retrospective on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, eds. Richard Landes and Steven Katz (New York: New York Univ. Press, 2011).

[9] CBS News, ‘Napolitano: Lone wolf terror threat growing’ (December 2, 2011), http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-201_162-57336080/napolitano-lone-wolf-terror-threat-growing/, (accessed 26/9/2012).

[10] The “spark” phrase is from an essay by Mao. “Spark” (Iskra in Russian), was the name of a newspaper paper established by Lenin. The phrase was popularized by the 1960’s Weather Underground in its revolutionary journal Prairie Fire. The concept originates in the revolutionary theory known as “propaganda of the deed” which can include acts of violence and terrorism. The theory was developed in the 1800’s by left revolutionaries and anarchists, notably Carlo Pisacane, Mikhail Bakunin, and Paul Brousse.

[11] Theodor W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswick, Daniel J. Levinson, R. Nevitt Sanford, The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row: 1950); Bruno Bettelheim and Morris Janowitz, The Dynamics of Prejudice (New York: Harper & Row, 1950); Norman W. Ackerman and Marie Jahoda, Anti-Semitism and Emotional Disorder (New York: Harper & Row, 1950); John Dollard, L. Doob, N. E. Miller, O. H. Mowrer, and R. R. Sears, Frustration and Aggression, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1939); Theodor W. Adorno, et al. , The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row, 1950); Gordon W. Allport, Nature of Prejudice (Cambridge, MA: Addison–Wesley, 1954).

[12] Naturally there are critics of this argument, but many of the contentions remain valid. Other contentions have been challenged or remain unproven in social science research studies. An exemplary review of this is found in Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, The Anatomy of Prejudices (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996).

[13] Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism, republished in three volumes: Hannah Arendt, Antisemitism: Part One of The Origins of Totalitarianism. (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968);Hannah Arendt, Imperialism: Part Two of The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968); Hannah Arendt, Totalitarianism: Part Three of The Origins of Totalitarianism. (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968).

[14] Eric Hoffer, The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements, (Harper and Row, New York: 1951); Milton Rokeach, The Open and Closed Mind, (New York: Basic Books, 1960).

[15] See for example, William Kornhauser, The Politics of Mass Society (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1959); Hans Toch, The Social Psychology of Social Movements (London: Methuen, 1966); Gustave Le Bon, The Crowd: A Study of Popular Mind (New York: Viking Press, 1960); Herbert Blumer, ‘Social Movements’, in Barry McLaughlin ed. Studies in Social Movements: A Social Psychological Perspective (New York: Free Press, 1969); Talcott Parsons, The Structure of Social Action, 2nd ed. (New York: Free Press, 1967); Ted Robert Gurr, Why Men Rebel, (Princeton, N J: Princeton University Press: 1970); Daniel Bell, ed., The Radical Right: The New American Right, Expanded And Updated, (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, 1964); Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab, The Politics of Unreason: Right–Wing Extremism in America, 1790–1970 (New York: Harper & Row, 1970); and Arnold Forster and Benjamin R. Epstein, Danger on the Right (New York: Random House, 1964).

[16] Richard Hofstadter, ’The Paranoid Style in American Politics’, in The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965); Richard Hofstadter, Anti–Intellectualism in American Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1963); Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform: From Bryan to FDR (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1955).

[17] An excellent overview of these newer theories is Evan R. Harrington, ‘The Social Psychology of Hatred’, Journal of Hate Studies, 2003/04, 3/1, Journal of Hate Studies (Institute for Action against Hate, Gonzaga University Law School), 3/1 (2004), pp. 49-82, online at http://guweb2. Gonzaga.edu/againsthate/journal3/GHS110.pdf, (accessed 26/9/2012).

[18] Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1951); Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem; A Report on the Banality of Evil (New York: Viking Press, 1963).

[19] Jeane J. Kirkpatrick made the claim that Arendt had indicted all Marxists in Dictatorships and Double Standards: Rationalism and Reason in Politics (New York: Simon and Schuster: 1982). For a critique of Kirkpatrick’s claims, see Sara Diamond, Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States (New York: Guilford Press: 1995), pp. 198, 216-217. For Arendt’s actual thesis, see Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, [1951] 1973), especially pp. 468-474.

[20] Michael Rogin, The Intellectuals and McCarthy: The Radical Specter (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA: 1967), especially pp. 261–282.

[21] Richard O. Curry and Thomas M. Brown, eds., ‘Introduction’, in Conspiracy: The Fear Of Subversion In American History, edited by the authors, (Holt, Rinehart And Winston, New York: 1972), pp. xii–xi; Leo Ribuffo, The Old Christian Right: The Protestant Far Right from the Great Depression to the Cold War (Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press, 1983), pp. 237–257; Margaret Canovan, Populism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich: 1981), pp. 46–51, 179–190; Jerome L. Himmelstein, To The Right: The Transformation Of American Conservatism, (Berkeley: Univ. Of California Press: 1990), pp. 1–5, 72–76, 152–164; Sara Diamond, Roads To Dominion: Right–Wing Movements And Political Power In The United States (New York: The Guilford Press: 1995), pp. 5–6, 40–41; Sara Diamond, ‘How “Radical” Is the Christian Right?’ The Humanist, March/April 1994; Michael Kazin, The Populist Persuasion: An American History. (New York: Basic Books: 1995), pp. 190–193; Betty A. Dobratz and Stephanie Shanks–Meile, The White Separatist Movement in the United States: “White Power, White Pride!” (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1997); Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, “One Key to Litigating Against Government Prosecution of Dissidents: Understanding the Underlying Assumptions”, Police Misconduct and Civil Rights Law Report, West Group, in two parts, 5/13, January-February 1998, and 5/14, March-April: 1998; William B. Hixson, Jr. , Search for the American Right Wing: An Analysis of the Social Science Record: 1955–1987 (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1992). For statistical data that refutes claims made by centrist/extremist theory about the social base of the ‘radical right’, see Rogin, Intellectuals and McCarthy; Fred W. Grupp, Jr. , ‘The Political Perspectives of Birch Society Members’, in The American Right Wing: Readings in Political Behavior, ed. Robert A. Schoenberger (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969); James McEvoy, III, ‘Conservatism or Extremism: Goldwater Supporters in the 1964 Presidential Election’ in Schoenberger ed. American Right Wing; Charles Jeffrey Kraft, A Preliminary Socio-Economic & State Demographic Profile of the John Birch Society (Cambridge, MA: Political Research Associates, 1992).

[22] This section is borrowed from Chip Berlet, ‘Reframing Populist Resentments in the Tea Party Movement’, in Steep: The Precipitous Rise of the Tea Party, eds. Lawrence Rosenthal and Christine Trost (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 2012).

[23] John D. McCarthy and Mayer N. Zald, ‘Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory’, American Journal of Sociology, 82/6 (May 1977), pp. 1212–1241; Doug McAdam, John D. McCarthy, and Mayer N. Zald, Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings (London and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

[24] Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1959); Erving Goffman, Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1974); McCarthy and Zald, ‘Resource Mobilization’; David A. Snow, E. Burke Rochford, Jr., Steven K. Worden, and Robert D. Benford, ‘Frame Alignment Process, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation’, American Sociological Review 51 (1986) pp. 464–481; David A. Snowand Robert D. Benford, ‘Master Frames and Cycles of Protest’, in Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, eds. Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller (Yale University Press, New Haven: 1992).

[25] Joseph E. Davis, ed., Stories of Change Narrative and Social Movements (State University of New York Press, Albany: 2002); Francesca Polletta, ‘Contending Stories: Narrative in Social Movements’, Qualitative Sociology, Vol. 21, No. 4,1998, pp. 419-446.

[26] Patricia Ewick and Susan S. Silbey, ‘Subversive Stories and Hegemonic Tales: Toward a Sociology of Narrative’, Law & Society Review Vol. 29, No. 2, 1995, pp. 197-226.

[27] Robert (Bob) Altemeyer, ‘Highly Dominating, Highly Authoritarian Personalities,’ in Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 14: 2004, pp. 421-447. See also Robert (Bob) Altemeyer, Right-wing authoritarianism (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1981); Robert (Bob) Altemeyer, Enemies of freedom: Understanding Right-wing Authoritarianism (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988); Robert (Bob) Altemeyer, The Authoritarian Specter (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996).

[28] Robert (Bob) Altemeyer, ‘Comment on the Tea Party Movement,’ personal website, April 20, 2010, http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~altemey/drbob/Comment%20on%20the%20Tea%20Party.pdf (Accessed 5/10/2012).

[29] Hans-Georg Betz, ‘The Two Faces of Radical Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe,’ The Review of Politics, Autumn 1993, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 663-685, quote from abstract, p. 663.

[30] Ray Taras, Europe Old and New: Transnationalism, Belonging, Xenophobia, (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield), pp. 83-172, quote from p. 93.

[31] Drew Westen, The Political Brain: The Role of Emotion in Deciding the Fate of the Nation (New York: Public Affairs, 2007); George Lakoff, The Political Mind: A Cognitive Scientist’s Guide to your Brain and its Politics (New York: Viking Penguin, 2008); Chris Mooney, The Republican Brain: The Science of Why They Deny Science and Reality (Hoboken, NJ; Chichester/Wiley2012).

[32] This section is adapted from Chip Berlet, ‘The United States: Messianism, Apocalypticism, and Political Religion’, in The Sacred in Twentieth Century Politics: Essays in Honour of Professor Stanley G. Payne, eds. Roger Griffin, Matthew Feldman, and John Tortice (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008). pp. 221-257; Chip Berlet, ‘Christian Identity: The Apocalyptic Style, Political Religion, Palingenesis and Neo-Fascism’ in Fascism, Totalitarianism, and Political Religion, ed. Roger Griffin (Routledge, London: 2005) pp. 175-212; Chip Berlet, ‘When Alienation Turns Right: Populist Conspiracism, the Apocalyptic Style, and Neofascist Movements’, in Trauma, Promise, and the Millennium: The Evolution of Alienation, eds. Lauren Langman and Devorah Kalekin Fishman (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005) pp. 115-144; Chip Berlet, ‘Protocols to the Left, Protocols to the Right’; Chip Berlet, Toxic to Democracy: Conspiracy Theories, Demonization, & Scapegoating (Somerville, MA: Political Research Associates, 2009), http://www. publiceye. org/conspire/toxic2democracy/index. html, (accessed 26/9/2012). Chip Berlet, ‘Fears of Fédéralisme in the United States: The Case of the “North American Union” Conspiracy Theory’, Fédéralisme Régionalisme, Vol. 9, No.1, 2009, special issue on ‘Le Fédéralisme Américain’, http://popups. ulg. ac. be/federalisme/document. php?id=786, (accessed 26/9/2012).

[33] Dick Anthony and Thomas Robbins, ‘Religious Totalism, Exemplary Dualism, and The Waco Tragedy’, in Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem, eds. Robbins and Palmer (New York: Routledge: 1997) pp. 261-84, quotes from pp. 264, 269.

[34] Dick Anthony and Thomas Robbins, ‘Religious Totalism, Violence and Exemplary Dualism: Beyond the Extrinsic Model’, in Millennialism and Violence, ed. Michael Barkun, Cass Series on Political Violence (London: Frank Cass, 1996) pp. 10–50.

[35] Hofstadter, Anti–Intellectualism, p. 135.

[36] Michelle Goldberg, Kingdom Coming: The Rise of Christian Nationalism (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006); William Martin, With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America (New York: Broadway Books: 1996).

[37] Gordon W. Allport, ‘Demagogy’, in Conspiracy: The Fear of Subversion in American History, eds. Richard O. Curry and Thomas M. Brown (New York, N.Y: Holt, Rinehart and Winston: 1972), pp. 263–76.

[38] Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion (Harcourt, Brace, and Jovanovich, New York: 1922).

[39] Edward L. Bernays, Crystallizing Public Opinion (New York: Liveright, 1923); Edward L. Bernays, Propaganda (New York: Liveright, 1928). In an interview I conducted with the late Bernays, he quiped that rhetoric of persuasion that used “propaganda techniques not in accordance with good sense, good faith, or good morals” should be called “impropaganda;” Logic & Credible Journalism, http://www. researchforprogress. us/media/training/logic. html, (accessed 26/9/2012).

[40] George Gerbner, Larry Gross, Michael Morgan, and Nancy Signorielli, ‘Growing up with Television: The Cultivation Perspective’, in Against the Mainstream: The Selected Works of George Gerbner, ed. Michael Morgan (New York: Peter Lang, 2002) pp. 193-213;James Shanahan and Michael Morgan, Television and Its Viewers: Cultivation Theory and Research (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 1999).

[41] Louis Althusser, For Marx (Pantheon, New York: 1965; Louis Althusser, Reading Capital. London: NLB: 1970. Louis Althusser, ‘Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses’, in Lenin and Philosophy (New York: Monthly Review: 1971.

[42] Maurice Charland, “Constitutive rhetoric: The Case of the Peuple Québécois, in Quarterly Journal of Speech, Vol. 73, No.2, 1987, pp. 133-150.

[43] Ibid.

[44] Jennifer B. Gray, ‘Althusser, Ideology, and Theoretical Foundations: Theory and Communication’, in NMEDIACm: Journal of New Media & Culture, 3/1 Winter 2006), online at http://www. ibiblio. org/nmediac/winter2004/gray. html, (accessed 26/9/2012).

[45] Hank Johnston, ‘A Methodology for Frame Analysis: From Discourse to Cognitive Schemata’, in Social Movements and Culture, Social Movements, Protest, and Contention vol. 4, eds. Hank Johnston and Bert Klandermans (University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN: 1995), pp. 217–246.

[46] Margaret Duffy, Janice Teruggi Page, and Rachel Young, ‘Obama as Anti-American: Visual Folklore in Right-wing Forwarded E-mails and Construction of Conservative Social Identity’, Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 125, No. 496, 2012, pp. 177-203.

[47] Ibid.,

[48] Ibid.,

[49] David Neiwert, The Eliminationists: How Hate Talk Radicalized the American Right (Sausalito, CA: PoliPointPress, 2009); John Amato and David Neiwert, Over the Cliff: How Obama’s Election Drove the American Right Insane (Sausalito, CA: PoliPointPress, 2010); Alexander Zaitchik, Common Nonsense: Glenn Beck and the Triumph of Ignorance (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010); Will Bunch, The Backlash: Right-Wing Radicals, High-Def Hucksters, and Paranoid Politics in the Age of Obama (New York: Harper, 2010).

[50] This text is borrowed from Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, RightWing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort (New York: Guilford Press: 2000), pp. 7-9.

[51] Allport, Nature of Prejudice, p. 244. On the ritualized transference and expulsion of evil in a variety of cultures, see Frazier, Golden Bough, pp. 624–686. On the process and social function of scapegoating in historic persecution texts of myth and religion, see Girard, Scapegoat.

[52] Richard Allen Landes, ‘Scapegoating’ in Encyclopedia of Social History ed. Peter N. Stearn (New York: Garland, 1994), p. 659.

[53] Allport, Nature of Prejudice, p. 350.

[54] Berlet and Lyons, RightWing Populism, pp. 7-9.

[55] Conversation with Susan M. Fisher, MD (clinical professor of psychiatry at University of Chicago Medical School and Faculty, Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis): 1997.

[56] See Allport, Nature of Prejudice, pp. 243–260; Girard, Scapegoat.

[57] Ruth Benedict, Race: Science and Politics (The New York: Viking Press, 1961), p. 151.

[58] Ibid., pp. 150-151, 153.

[59] Allport, Nature of Prejudice, p. 351.

[60] Jack Levin and Jack McDevitt, Hate Crimes: The Rising Tide of Bigotry and Bloodshed (New York: Plenum Press: 1996), pp. 234-235.

[61] Kazin, The Populist Persuasion; Berlet and Lyons, RightWing Populism, especially p. 6.

[62] Ibid.

[63] Gary Allen with Larry Abraham, None Dare Call It Conspiracy (Rossmoor/Seal Beach, CA: Concord Press, [1971] 1972), p. 24.

[64] Ibid., an image of the graphic is at http://www.researchforprogress.us/producerism/, (Accessed 5/10/2012).

[65] Kazin, The Populist Persuasion; and Berlet and Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America.

[66] James A. Aho, This Thing of Darkness: A Sociology of the Enemy (Univ. of Washington Press, Seattle: 1994), pp. 107–21; Elaine H , Pagels, The Origin of Satan (New York: Random House, 1995); David Norman Smith, ‘The Social Construction of Enemies: Jews and the Representation of Evil’, Sociological Theory: 1996, 14/3; Lise Noël, Intolerance, A General Survey, translated by Arnold Bennett (McGill–Queen’s University Press, Montreal:1994).

[67] Robert Solomon Wistrich, Demonizing the Other (Amsterdam: Published for the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem by Harwood Academic Publishers, 1999)

[68] Robert J. Lifton, Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, [1961] 1989); Robert Altemeyer, The Authoritarian Specter (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

[69] Evan R. Harrington, ‘The Social Psychology of Hatred’.

[70] Stanley Milgram, Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View (New York: Harper & Row, 1974).

[71] Public Broadcasting System, ‘Brown Eye Blue Eye Experiment’ devised by schoolteacher Jane Elliott, ‘A Class Divided’, Public Broadcasting System, original airdate March 26, 1985, http://www. pbs. org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/divided/, (accessed 26/9/2012).

[72] René Girard, The Scapegoat (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) pp. 43–44, 49–56, 66–73, 84–87, 100–101, 177–178.

[73] Aho, This Thing of Darkness, pp. 115–116.

[74] Girard, Scapegoat, p. 44.

[75] Noël, Intolerance, pp. 129–144.

[76] Allport, Nature of Prejudice, pp. 363–364.

[77] Robert C. Fuller, Naming the Antichrist: The History of an American Obsession (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 168).

[78] Fuller, Naming the Antichrist; Norman Cohn, Cosmos, Chaos and the World to Come: The Ancient Roots of Apocalyptic Faith (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993); Norman Cohn The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages, 3rd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, [1957] 1970), especially the Introduction; Stephen D. O’Leary, Arguing the Apocalypse: A Theory of Millennial Rhetoric (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994); Paul S. Boyer, When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture (Belknap/Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1992); Charles B. Strozier, Apocalypse: On the Psychology of Fundamentalism in America (Beacon Press, Boston: 1994); Damian Thompson, The End of Time: Faith and Fear in the Shadow of the Millennium (Univ. Press of New England, Hanover, NH: 1998); Richard K. Fenn, The End of Time: Religion, Ritual, and the Forging of the Soul (Pilgrim Press, Cleveland: 1997); David G. Bromley, ‘Constructing Apocalypticism’, in Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem: Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements, eds. Thomas Robbins and Susan J. Palmer (New York: Routledge, 1997) pp. 31–45; Catherine Wessinger, ‘Millennialism With and Without the Mayhem’, in Robbins and Palmer, Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem, pp. 47–59; Joel Kovel, Red Hunting in the Promised Land: Anticommunism and the Making of America (New York: Basic Books, 1994); Pagels, Origin of Satan.

[79] Robert Jay, Lifton, Superpower Syndrome: America’s Apocalyptic Confrontation with the World (New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press/Nation Books, 2003) p. 21; Catherine Wessinger, ed., Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases (Syracuse: Syracuse Univ. Press, 2000).

[80] Anthony and Robbins, ‘Religious Totalism’, p. 269.

[81] David Brion Davis, ed.,The Fear of Conspiracy: Images of Un–American Subversion from the Revolution to the Present (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY: 1972); Frank P. Mintz, The Liberty Lobby and the American Right: Race, Conspiracy, and Culture (Greenwood Press, Westport, CT: 1985); Robert Alan, Goldberg, Enemies Within: The Culture of Conspiracy in Modern America (New Haven: Yale University, 2001); Michael Barkun, ‘Conspiracy theories as stigmatized knowledge: The basis for a new age racism’? In Nation and race: The developing euro-American racist subculture, eds. J. Kaplan and T. Bjørgo (Boston: Northeastern Univ. Press, 1998) pp. 58-72; Michael Barkun, A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America, Univ. of California; Berkeley: 2003); Michael Barkun, ‘Anti-Semitism from Outer Space: The Protocols in the UFO Subculture’, in The Paranoid Apocalypse: A Hundred-year Retrospective on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, eds. Richard Landes and Steven Katz (New York: published for the Elie Wiesel Center for Judaic Studies Series [Boston] by New York Univ. Press, 2012) pp. 163-171.

[82] Goldberg, Enemies Within, p. 1.

[83] Mark Fenster, Conspiracy Theories: Secrecy and Power in American Culture (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1999).

[84] Berlet and Lyons, RightWing Populism, p. 9.

[85] Chip Berlet ‘Protocols to the Left’.

[86] Chip Berlet, “Collectivists, Communists, Labor Bosses, and Treason: The Tea Parties as Right–Wing Populist Countersubversion Panic’, in Critical Sociology, July 2012; 38 (4) pp. 565-587; Berlet, ‘Reframing Populist Resentments in the Tea Party Movement.’.

[87] Berlet, ‘Fears of Fédéralisme in the United States’.

[88] Brigitte Nacos and Oscar Torres-Reyna, Fueling Our Fears: Stereotyping, Media Coverage, and Public Opinion of Muslim Americans (Lanham, MD: Rowman& Littlefield, 2007); Center for Race & Gender and Council on American-Islamic Relations, Same Hate, New Target: Islamophobia and its Impact in the United States; January 2009—December 2010 (Berkeley: University of California, Center for Race & Gender, and Washington, DC: Council on American-Islamic Relations, 2011).

[89] Hofstadter, ‘The Paranoid Style in American Politics.’

[90] Ibid., p. 4.

[91] Ibid., emphasis in the original.

[92] Thompson, The End of Time, pp. 307–308.

[93] United States Surgeon General’s Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior and United States Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, Television and Growing Up: The Impact of Television Violence; Report to the Surgeon General. (Washington: US Govt. Printing Office, 1972).

[94] W. James Potter, Ten Myths of Media Violence (Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2003).

[95] George Gerbner, Larry Gross, Michael Morgan, and Nancy Signorielli, ‘The “mainstreaming” of America: Violence’, profile no. 11. Journal of Communication, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1980, pp. 10-29; George Gerbner, ‘Reclaiming our cultural mythology: Television’s global marketing strategy creates a damaging and alienated window on the world,’ The Ecology of Justice, Vol. 38, Spring 1994, pp. 40-44; George Gerbner, Larry Gross, Michael Morgan, Nancy Signorielli, and James Shanahan, ‘Growing up with television: Cultivation processes’, in Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research, eds. Jennings Bryant and Dolf Zillmann (Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994). An extensive and excellent overview of Gerbner’s theories is Scott Stossel, ‘The Man Who Counts the Killing,’ The Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 279, No. 5, May 1997, pp. 86-104, http://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/issues/97may/gerbner.htm (Accessed 5/10/2012).

[96] Anders Behring Breivik (writing as Andrew Berwick), ‘2083: A European Declaration of Independence,’ self-published, July 2011. A copy of the Breivik manifesto in PDF format is archived at http://www.researchforprogress.us/dox/europe/norway/breivik/manifesto.pdf (Accessed 5/10/2012).

[97] Mattia Gardell, ‘Roots of Breivik’s Ideology: Where Does the Romantic Male Warrior Ideal Come From Today?’, OpenDemocracy.net, January 8, 2012, http://www.opendemocracy.net/mattias-gardell/roots-of-breiviks-ideology-where-does-romantic-male-warrior-ideal-come-from-today (accessed 27 January 2012).

[98] Ibid.

[99] David Neiwert, ‘Norway terrorist Breivik was an ardent subscriber to theories of “Cultural Marxism”’,Crooks and Liars, July 23, 2011, http://crooksandliars.com/david-neiwert/norway-terrorist-breivik-was-ardent- (Accessed 5/10/2012); based in part on the program ‘Political Correctness Is Cultural Marxism,’ March 25, 2009, Fox News, Andrew Breitbart appearance on the March 25 edition of the Sean Hannity program, ‘The Obama Lexicon’ segment. See also Media Matters, ‘Breitbart: “Cultural Marxism is political correctness, it’s multiculturalism, and it’s a war on Judeo-Christianty”’, Mediamatters.org, 18/12/2009, http://mediamatters.org/video/2009/12/18/breitbart-cultural-marxism-is-political-correct/158346 (Accessed 5/10/2012), where the Andrew Breitbart appearance on the Sean Hannity program is also preserved as online video .

[100] Bill Berkowitz: ‘Nightmare in Norway and the Threat of Fundamentalist Christian, Blonde, Blue-eyed Terrorists in Our Midst’, Buzzflash, http://blog.buzzflash.com/node/12881 (accessed 27/1/2012); Sarah Posner, ‘How Breivik’s “Cultural Analysis” is Drawn from the “Christian Worldview”’, Religion Dispatches, http://www.religiondispatches.org/dispatches/sarahposner/4934/ (accessed 27 January 2012; Henry A. Giroux, ‘Breivik’s fundamentalist war on politics, and ours,’ 3 August 2011, http://www.truth-out.org/breiviks-fundamentalist-war-politics-and-ours/1312390288 (accessed 27 January 2012).

[101] James William Gibson, Warrior Dreams: Paramilitary Culture in Post-Viet Nam America (New York: Hill and Wang, 1994).

[102] Julie Ingersoll, ‘Breivik’s Emasculation Paranoia Fueled Vision for Patriarchal “Reforms”’, Religion Dispatches, 29 July 2011, http://www.religiondispatches.org/dispatches/julieingersoll/4944/ (accessed 27 January 2012). See also Julie Ingersoll, ‘Breivik’s Christianity About Culture Not Piety,’ Religion Dispatches, 25 July 2011, http://www.religiondispatches.org/dispatches/julieingersoll/4913/ (accessed 27 January 2012); Julie Ingersoll, ‘What’s Actually in Breivik’s “Declaration of Independence”’, Religion Dispatches, 26 July 2011, http://www.religiondispatches.org/dispatches/julieingersoll/4931/ (accessed 27 January 2012).

[103] Jerry Lembke, The Spitting Image: Myth, Memory, and the Legacy of Vietnam (New York: New York Univ. Press, 2000); Jerry Lembke, CNN’s Tailwind Tale: Inside Vietnam’s Last Great Myth (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003); Jerry Lembke, Hanoi Jane: War, Sex, and Fantasies of Betrayal (Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 2010).