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Chip Berlet

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Additional Resources for Extra! Article

"Islamophobia, Antisemitism and the Demonized ‘Other’
Parallels among bigotries reflect the conspiratorial mindset"

by Chip Berlet

August 2012

Cite as: Chip Berlet, "Islamophobia, Antisemitism and the Demonized ‘Other’:
Parallels among bigotries reflect the conspiratorial mindset," Extra!, Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting,
August 2012,


Chip's Recent Articles:

"Understanding the Colorado Shooting: Terrorism, Politics, Mental Illness and the Superhero Complex," Alternet, July 21,

"Sikh Temple Terror: Alleged Shooter was 'Frustrated Neo-Nazi,'" Talk to Action, August 6, 2012,

Links and Cites in the Extra! Article

The Christian Right and Dominonism

The Smearcasters website on Islamophobia from FAIR.

Clarkson, Fred. 1997. Eternal Hostility: The Struggle between Theocracy and Democracy. Monroe, ME: Common Courage.

Fred Clarkson blogs at Talk to Action

Diamond, Sara. 1989. Spiritual Warfare: The Politics of the Christian Right. Boston: South End Press.

———. 1998. Not by Politics Alone: The Enduring Influence of the Christian Right. New York: Guilford Press.

Sara Diamond no longer is involved in sociology, and prefers not to be disturned in her new line of work.

Goldberg, Michelle. 2006. Kingdom Coming: The Rise of Christian Nationalism. New York: W.W. Norton.

Michelle Goldberg has her own website

Kaplan, Esther. 2004. With God on Their Side: How Christian Fundamentalists Trampled Science, Policy, and Democracy in George W. Bush’s White House. New York: The New Press.

Esther Kaplan works with the Investigative Fund, affiliated with the Nation magazine


PIPES: ‘Rushdie Rules’ reach Florida
Obama endorses privileged status for Islam
By Daniel Pipes-The Washington Times Monday, September 20, 2010

In Islamic Law, Gingrich Sees a Mortal Threat to U.S.
By SCOTT SHANE, The New York Times
Published: December 21, 2011

Chip Berlet. 2004. “Zog Ate My Brains.” New Internationalist (London), Issue 372 (October), pp. 20-21; Special Issue on Judeophobia, online at

_______. 2011. “Protocols to the Left, Protocols to the Right: Conspiracism in American Political Discourse at the Turn of the Second Millennium.” In Richard Landes and Steven Katz, The Paranoid Apocalypse: A Hundred-year Retrospective on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. New York: New York Univ. Press.

Selected Reports on Islamophobia

Manufacturing the Muslim Menace:
Private Firms, Public Servants, & the Threat to Rights and Security 

by Thomas Cincotta, Political Research Associates

Fear, Inc.:
The Roots of the Islamophobia Network in America

by Wajahat Ali, Eli Clifton, Matthew Duss, Lee Fang , Scott Keyes, Faiz Shakir
Center for American Progress

Background Interviews for the New Internationalist Article on Antisemitism

“Zog Ate My Brains.” New Internationalist (London), Issue 372 (October), pp. 20-21; Special Issue on Judeophobia, online at

Full length interviews with those quoted in this article and other resources on antisemitism and conspiracism are available at the PRA website:

Studying the Tools of Fear

Curry & Brown, eds., “Introduction,” Conspiracy, p. x.
Higham, Strangers, pp. 3-11;
Hofstadter, Paranoid Style, pp. 3-40;
Davis, Fear of Conspiracy, pp. xv-xviii;
Bennett, Party of Fear, pp. 1-16;

George Johnson, Architects of Fear: Conspiracy Theories and Paranoia in American Politics, (Los Angeles: Tarcher, 1983),

Demonization leads to violence: See: Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners and Browning, Ordinary Men.

Goldhagen argues that the commonplace bigotry, demonization, and scapegoating of Jews throughout German society was the central factor in the willingness of ordinary Germans to participate in the genocide. Christopher Browning, who studied the same unit of German wartime killers as Goldhagen, concluded that bureaucratic conformity was the central factor. (Christopher Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (New York: HarperCollins, 1992). This intentionalist v. functionalist dichotomy, like many academic feuds, is more useful for practical applications in a synthesized form that balances arguments from both camps. Sadly enough, either way, the victims still are brutalized and murdered. For a thoughtful review of the issues, see Adam Shatz, "Browning's Version," Lingua Franca, February 1997, pp 48-57.


Additional Bibliography


Norman Cohn, Warrant for Genocide: The Myth of the Jewish World Conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, (London: Serif, 1996 (1967)).

Po-chia Hsia, The Myth of Ritual Murder: Jews and Magic in Reformation Germany, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1988.

Chanes, Jerome A. (1995). Antisemitism in America Today: Outspoken Experts Explode the Myths. New York: Birch Lane Press/Carol Publishing.

Grosser, Paul E., and Edwin G. Halperin. (1979). Anti-Semitism: The Causes and Effects of a Prejudice. Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, Lyle Stuart.

Heiko A. Oberman, The Roots of Anti-Semitism: In the Age of Renaissance and Reformation, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984, translated by James I. Porter, (German edition 1981)).

Henry Charles Lea, The Inquisition of the Middle Ages, abridged, (New York: Macmillan, 1961),

Frederic Cople Jaher, A Scapegoat in the New Wilderness: The Origins and Rise of Anti-Semitism in America, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994).

Leonard Dinnerstein, Anti-Semitism in America, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).

Singerman, Robert. (1982). Antisemitic Propaganda: An Annotated Bibliography and Research Guide. New York: Garland Publishing.

Singerman, Robert. (1986). “The Jew as Racial Alien: The Genetic Component of American Anti-Semitism.” In David A. Gerber (Ed.), Anti-Semitism in American History. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Bendersky JW (2000) The Jewish Threat: Anti–Semitic Politics of the U.S. Army. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Bennett DH (1995 [1988]) The Party of Fear: The American Far Right from Nativism to the Militia Movement. Revised. New York, NY: Vintage Books.

Berkowitz B (2003) Reframing the enemy: ‘Cultural Marxism,’ a conspiracy theory with an anti–Semitic twist, is being pushed by much of the American right, Intelligence Report, Southern Policy Law Center, Summer. Available (consulted December 9 2011) at:

Berlet C (1994 [1990]) Right Woos Left: Populist Party, LaRouchian, and Other Neo–fascist Overtures to Progressives and Why They Must Be Rejected. Revised. Cambridge, MA Political Research Associates.

Michael Lind, “Rev. Robertson’s Grand International Conspiracy Theory.” New York Review of Books, 2 February 1995, 21–25.; Jacob Heilbrunn, “On Pat Robertson: His Anti-Semitic Sources,” New York Review of Books, 20 April 1995, 68–70.

Higgins, George G. (1995). “Forays Into Anti-Semitism.” Catholic New York, March 9, p. 10.

Billig, Michael. (1989). “The Extreme Right: Continuities in Anti-Semitic Conspiracy Theory in Post-War Europe.” In Roger Eatwell and Noël O’Sullivan (Eds.), The Nature of the Right: American and European Politics and Political Thought Since 1789 (pp. 146–166). Boston: Twayne Publishers.

Kaplan, E. 2002. Antisemitism after September 11th. Public Eye 16 (2), (Summer 2002), 26–31. Also available online at

Levin, J. 2002. The violence of hate: Confronting racism, anti-Semitism, and other forms of bigotry. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Strong, Donald S. (1941). Organized Anti-Semitism in America: The Rise of Group Prejudice During the Decade 1930–40. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Public Affairs.

Holmes, Colin. (1979). Anti-Semitism in British Society, 1876–1939. New York: Holmes and Meier.

Postone, Moishe. 1986. "Anti-Semitism and National Socialism." Germans & Jews Since the Holocaust: The Changing Situation in West Germany, ed. Anson Rabinbach and Jack Zipes. New York: Homes & Meier.

Wistrich (R.S.) (éd.), Demonizing the other: Antisemitism, racism, and xenophobia, Routledge, London, [1999] 2003.

Gow, Andrew Colin. (1995) The Red Jews: Antisemitism in an Apocalyptic Age 1200-1600. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Antisemitism and the Right in France by Zeev Sternhell. (Jerusalem, Israel: Shazar Library, Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1988).

Carmichael, Joel.The Satanizing of the Jews: Origin and Development of
Mystical Anti-Semitism.New York: Fromm International Publishing Corp.,

Antisemitism and Genocide

Hannah Arendt, "Antisemitism," The Origins of Totalitarianism, (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973 (1951)),

Lucy S. Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews 1933-1945 (New York: Bantam Books, 1975), 374-401;

Nora Levin, The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933-1945 (New York: Schocken Books, 1973), 507-618.

Robert G. L. Waite, "Adolf Hitler's Anti-Semitism: A Study in History and Psychoanalysis," in The Nazi Holocaust 2, The Origins of the Holocaust, ed. Michael R. Marrus (Wesport: Meckler, 1989), 347.

Pauley BF (1992) From Prejudice to Persecution: A History of Austrian Anti–Semitism. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Pulzer PGJ (1964) The Rise of Political Anti–Semitism in Germany and Austria, New Dimensions in History, Essays in Comparative History. New York: John Wiley and Sons;

Israel Gutman (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (New York: MacMillan, 1990); Lucy S. Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews 1933–1945 (New York: Bantam Books, 1975), pp. 374–401;

J. Wodka, ‘Englebert Dollfuss’, New Catholic Encyclopedia (San Francisco: McGraw Hill, 1967), pp. 958–959.

Randolph L. Braham and Scott Miller, The Nazis Last Victims: The Holocaust in Hungary (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, [1998] 2002);

Leon Volovici, Nationalist Ideology and Antisemitism: The Case of Romanian Intellectuals in the 1930s (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1991);

Nicholas M. Nagy–Talavera, The Green Shirts and the Others: A History of Fascism in Hungary and Romania (Iaşi and Oxford: The Center for Romanian Studies, 2001);

Anthony Rhodes, The Vatican in the Age of Dictators 1922–1945 (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1973), pp.

Michael Phayer, The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930–1965 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000),

Livia Rothkirchen, ‘Vatican Policy and the ‘Jewish Problem’ in Independent Slovakia (1939–1945)’ in Michael R. Marrus (ed.),The Nazi Holocaust 3, section 8, Bystanders to the Holocaust (Wesport: Meckler, 1989), pp. 1306–1332.

Katz, Steven T.
The Holocaust in Historical Context: Volume I
New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.


Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil, (New York: Penguin Books, 1963)

Lawrence L. Langer, Admitting the Holocaust: Collected Essays, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995)

Antisemitic - Examples

Beaty JO (1951) The Iron Curtain over America. Dallas, TX: Wilkinson


Eustace Mullins, The World Order: Our Secret Rulers, second edition, (Staunton, Va.: Ezra Pound Institute of Civilization, 1992);

Eustace Mullins, The Biological Jew, (Staunton, Va.: Faith and Service Books, ca. 1968);
Eustace Mullins, "Jews Mass Poison American Children, Women's Voice (Chicago), June 1955, p. 11;


Neo-Conned Again



Ali, Kecia, and Oliver Leaman. Islam : The Key Concepts. London; New York: Routledge, 2008. Print.

Chaudet, Didier, Florent Parmentier, and Benoit Pelopidas. When Empire Meets Nationalism : Power Politics in the US and Russia. Farnham, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate Pub., 2009. Print.

Esposito, John L. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Oxford; New York: Oxford UP, 2002. Print.

Martensson, Ulrike. Fundamentalism in the Modern World Vol. 2, Fundamentalism and Communication: Culture, Media and the Public Sphere. London [etc.]: I.B. Tauris, 2011. Print.

Qureshi, Emran, and Michael Anthony Sells. The New Crusades : Constructing the Muslim Enemy. New York: Columbia UP, 2003. Print.

Shryock, Andrew. Islamophobia/Islamophilia. ; Beyond the Politics of Enemy and Friend. N.p.: Indiana UP, 2010. Print.

Taras, Ray. Europe Old and New : Transnationalism, Belonging, Xenophobia. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009. Print.

Militant Islam

Abou El Fadl, Khaled. 2001. “Islam and the Theology of Power,” Middle East Report 221, (Winter): 28-33. Online at

Berlet, Chip. 2003. “Terminology: Use with Caution.” Fascism. Vol. 5, Critical Concepts in Political Science, Roger Griffin and Matthew Feldman, eds. New York, NY: Routledge.

Borum, Randy. 2004 Psychology of Terrorism. Tampa: Univesity of South Florida.

Gerges, Fawaz A. 2005. The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Jalal, Ayesha. 2000. Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam Since c. 1850s . New York: Routledge.

Laqueur, Walter. 1996. Fascism: Past, Present, Future. New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Michael, George. 2006. The Enemy of My Enemy: The Alarming Convergence of Militant Islam And the Extreme Right. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Rashid, Ahmed. 2001. Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven: Yale Nota Bene.

Reich, Walter, ed. 1998. Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press. (Distributed by Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.)

Sageman, Marc. 2004. Understanding Terror Networks. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Tibi, Bassam. [1998] 2002. The Challenge of Fundamentalism: Political Islam and the New World Disorder. Updated. Berkeley: University of California.

Wiktorowicz, Quintan. ed. 2004. Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.


Gaubatz, P. David, Paul Sperry, Muslim Mafia : Inside the Secret Underworld That's Conspiring to Islamize America. Los Angeles, CA: WND, 2009. Print.

Geller, Pamela, and Robert Spencer. The Post-American Presidency : The Obama Administration's War on America. New York: Threshold Editions, 2010. Print.

Spencer, Robert. Stealth Jihad : How Radical Islam Is Subverting America without Guns or Bombs. Washington, DC: Regnery Pub., 2008. Print.

Religion and Violence

Anthony, D. and T. Robbins. 1996. Religious totalism, violence and exemplary dualism: Beyond the extrinsic model. In Millennialism and violence , ed. M. Barkun, 10–50. Cass Series on Political Violence. London: Frank Cass.

Anthony, Dick and Thomas Robbins. 1997. “Religious Totalism, Exemplary Dualism, and the Waco Tragedy.” In Robbins and Palmer, eds. 1997 , 261–284.

Armstrong, Karen. 2001. The Battle for God. New York: Ballantine Books.

Berlet, Chip. 2005. “When Alienation Turns Right: Populist Conspiracism, the Apocalyptic Style, and Neofascist Movements.” In Lauren Langman & Devorah Kalekin Fishman, (eds.),Trauma, Promise, and the Millennium: The Evolution of Alienation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Blee, Kathleen.. 1999. “Racist Activism and Apocalyptic/Millennial Thinking.” Journal of Millennial Studies 2:1. Retrieved July 4, 2004 (

Barkun, Michael. 1997. “Racist Apocalypse: Millennialism on the Far Right.” In The Year 2000: Essays on the End, ed. Charles B. Strozier and Michael Flynn, 190-205. New York: New York University Press.

Gorenberg, Gershom. 2000. The End of Days: Fundamentalism and the Struggle for the Temple Mount. New York: The Free Press.

Griffin, Roger. 2004. “Introduction: God’s Counterfeiters? Investigating the Triad of Fascism, Totalitarianism and Political Religion.” Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 5:291-325.

Juergensmeyer, Mark. 2000. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Berkeley: University of California.

Juergensmeyer, Mark. (2011) Is Norway’s Suspected Murderer Anders Breivik a Christian Terrorist? Religion Dispatches, 24 July. Available (consulted December 9 2011) at:

Kaplan, Jeffrey. 1997. Radical Religion in America: Millenarian Movements from the Far Right to the Children of Noah. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.

Rapoport, David C. 1993. "Comparing Militant Fundamentalist Movements and Groups," in Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby (eds.), Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance, The Fundamentalism Project 3, pp. 429–461. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Robbins, Thomas and Susan J. Palmer, eds. 1997. Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem: Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements. New York: Routledge.

Robbins, Thomas. 1997. “Religious Movements and Violence: A Friendly Critique of the Interpretive Approach.” Nova Religio 1:13-29.

Stern, Jessica. 1999. The Ultimate Terrorists. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Stern, Jessica. 2003. Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. New York: Ecco/Harper Collins.

Wessinger, Catherine, ed. 2000. Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.


Prejudice & Scapegoating





Theodor W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswick, Daniel J. Levinson, R. Nevitt Sanford, The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row, 1950);

Bruno Bettelheim and Morris Janowitz, The Dynamics of Prejudice (New York: Harper & Row, 1950);

Norman W. Ackerman and Marie Jahoda, Anti-Semitism and Emotional Disorder (New York: Harper & Row, 1950).

R.S. Wistrich (ed.), Demonizing the Other: Antisemitism, Racism, and Xenophobia, Routledge, [1999] 2003.

G. W. Allport, “Demagogy,” in R.O. Curry and T. M. Brown (eds) Conspiracy: The Fear of Subversion in American History, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972, pp. 263–76.

Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, The Anatomy of Prejudices, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996),

Scares and Panics

Richardson, James T ,, Joel Best, and David G. Bromley. The Satanism Scare. New York: A. De Gruyter, 1991. Print.

Nathan, Debbie and Michael R. Snedeker. (1995) Satan's Silence: Ritual Abuse and The Making of a Modern American Witch Hunt. New York: Basic Books.

Section on Collective Behavior and Social Movements of the American Sociological Association

Under Construction


Joanna Brooks, What’s Wrong with the ControversialBusinessweek “Mormon Money” Cover?, Religion Dispatches, July 13, 2012.

Michelle Bachmann Islamophobic Conspiracy Theory.

Multi-faceted bigotry: Jewish money and Mormon Power conspiracy theories.




Page Title


Related Resources

Never Random: Ignoring the Warning Signs of Organized Bigotry, Center for New Community @Imagine2050

"State Of The Union: A Status Report On The Far Right," by Sara Robinson, Campaign for Americas Future, January 28, 2010

The GOP & Racist Producerism

Introduction to Power Structure Research

Democracy is a process,
not a specific set of institutions

Democracy is a process that assumes
the majority of people, over time,
given enough accurate information,
and the ability to participate
in a free and open public debate,
reach constructive decisions
that benefit the whole of society, and
preserve liberty,
protect our freedoms,
extend equality, and
defend democracy.


Democracy is a process,
not a specific set of institutions

Democracy is a process that assumes
the majority of people, over time,
given enough accurate information,
the ability to participate
in a free and open public debate,
and can vote without intimidation,
reach constructive decisions
that benefit the whole of society, and
preserve liberty,
protect our freedoms,
extend equality, and
defend democracy.

-Chip Berlet





This site is curated by Chip Berlet