Constructing Campus Conflict

Antisemitism and Islamophobia on Campuses in the United States

Constructing Campus Conflict

Antisemitism and Islamophobia on Campuses in the United States

Supplementary Materials for Research and Discussion to Help Build Human Rights and Civil Liberties on College Campuses
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Additional Bibliographic Information

Islamophobia, Arabophobia, and Orientalism:

A Selected Research Bibliography by Sophia Shafi

See also: Islamophobia Bibliography

300, DVD. Directed by Zach Snyder. Burbank, California: Warner Brothers, 2007.

Almond, Ian. “Leibniz, Historicism, and the ‘Plague of Islam.’” Eighteenth-Century Studies 39, no. 4 (2006): 463-83.

_______. The New Orientalists: Postmodern Representations of Islam from Foucault to Baudrillard. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2007.

Anidjar, Gil. The Jew, The Arab: A History of the Enemy. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003.

Basu, Amrita. “The Europeanization of American Racism or a New Racial Hybrid?” Souls 4, no. 3 (2002): 31-38.

Bernstein, Matthew and Gaylyn Studlar, editors. Visions of the East: Orientalism in Film. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1997.

Boon, Kevin Alexander. “Ontological Anxiety Made Flesh: The Zombie in Literature, Film and Culture.” In Monsters and the Monstrous: Myths and Metaphors of Enduring Evil, edited by Niall Scott, 33-43. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2007.

Brault, Gerard J. The Song of Roland: An Analytical Edition. University Park and London: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1978.

Bunzl, Matti. “Between Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia: Some Thoughts on the New Europe.” American Ethnologist 32, no.4 (2005): 499-508.

Burley, Stephanie. “The Death of Zofloya ; or, The Moor as Epsitemological Limit. “ In The Gothic Other: Racial and Social Constructions in the Literary Imagination, edited by Ruth Bienstock Anolik and Douglas L. Howard, 197-211. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company Publishers, 2000.

Casillo, Robert. ” The Desert and the Swamp: Enlightenment, Orientalism, and the Jews in Ezra Pound.” Modern Language Quartery 45, no. 3 (1984): 263-86.

Chernus, Ira. Monsters to Destroy: The Neoconservative War on Terror and Sin. Boulder and London: Paradigm Publishers, 2006.

Clark, Claire and William Hoynes. “Images of Race and Nation After September 11th. “ Peace Review 15, no. 4 (2003): 443-50.

Claassens, Geert H.M. “Jacob van Maerlant on Muhammad and Islam.” In Medieval Christian Perceptions of Islam: A Book of Essays, edited by John Victor Tolan, 211-242. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1996.

Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome. Medieval Identity Machines. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

_______. Monster Theory: Reading Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.

_______. Of Giants: Sex, Monsters, and the Middle Ages. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999.

_______. The Postcolonial Middle Ages. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.

_______. “On Saracen Enjoyment: Some Fantasies of Race in Late Medieval France and England.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31, no.1 (2001): 113-146.

Comfort, William Wistar. “The Literary Role of the Saracens in the French Epic.” PMLA 55, no. 3 (1940): 628-59.

Davidson, Arnold I. “The Horror of Monsters.” In The Boundaries of Humanity: Humans, Animals, Machines, edited by James J. Sheehan and Morton Sosna, PAGES. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991.

Dendle, Peter. “The Zombie as Barometer of Cultural Anxiety.” In Monsters and the Monstrous: Myths and Metaphors of Enduring Evil, edited by Niall Scott, 45-57. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2007.

De Weever, Jacqueline. Sheba’s Daughters: Whitening and Demonizing the Saracen Woman in Medieval French Epic. New York: Garland Publishing, 1998.

Eisele, John C. “The Wild East: Deconstructing the Language of Genre in the Hollywood Eastern.” Cinema Journal 41, no. 4 (Summer 2002): 68-94.

El Fadl, Khaled Abou. “9/11 and the Muslim Transformation.” In September 11 in History, A Watershed Moment? edited by Mary L. Dudziak, 70-111. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003.

Falkner, Silke R. “‘Having It Off’ with Fish, Camels, and Lads: Sodomitic Pleasures in German-Language Turcica.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 13, no. 4 (October 2004): 401-427.

Fuller, Robert C. Naming the Antichrist: The History of an American Obsession. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Goetsch, Paul. Monsters in English Literature: From the Romantic Age to the First World War. New York: Peter Lang, 2002.

Gottschalk, Peter and Gabriel Greenberg. Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

Grady, Frank. “‘Machomete’ and Mandeville’s Travels” . In Medieval Christian Perceptions of Islam: A Book of Essays, edited by John Victor Tolan, 211-242. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996.

Haidu, Peter. The Subject of Violence: The Song of Roland and the Birth of the State. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

Hammerback, David. “Voltaire’s Mahomet, the Persistence of Cultural Memory and Pre-Modern Orientalism.” Agora: Online Graduate Humanities Journal 2, no.2. [February4,2007].

Hersch, Seymour. “Torture at Abu Ghraib.” The New Yorker: April 30, 2004.

Huntington, Samuel. “The Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs 72, No. 3 (1993): 22-49.

Hyatte, Reginald, trans. The Prophet of Islam In Old French: The Romance of Muhammad (1258) and The Book of Muhammad’s Ladder (1264). Leiden and New York: Brill, 1997.

Johnson, Galen. “Muhammad and Ideology in Medieval Christian Literature.” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 11, no. 3 (2000): 333-346.

Kahf, Mohja. Western Representation of the Muslim Woman: From Termagant to Odalisque. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999.

Kelly, Kathleen Coyne. “Medieval Times: Bodily Temporalities in The Thief of Bagdad (1924), The Thief of Bagdad (1940), and Aladdin (1992).” In Hollywood in the Holy Land: Essays on Film Depictions of the crusades and Christian-Muslim Clashes, edited by Nickolas Haydock and E.L. Risden, 200-24. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2009.

Kline, Naomi Reed. “The World of Strange Races.” In Monsters, Marvels and Miracles: Imaginary Journeys and Landscapes in the Middle Ages, ed. Leif Sondergaard and Rasmus Thorning Hansen, 27-41. Odense: University of Southern Denmark Press, 2005.

Kruger, Steven F. “Medieval Christian (Dis)identifications: Muslims and Jews in Guibert of Nogent.” New Literary History 28, no.2 (1997): 185-203.

Lammens, Henri. “Fatima and the Daughters of Muhammad” . In The Quest for the Historical Muhammad, edited and translated by Ibn Warraq, 218-329. Amherst: Prometheus Books, 2000.

Lobe, Jim. “Big Jump Found in Anti-Muslim Incidents.” Interpress Service, September 18, 2006.

Lockman, Zachary. Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Loshitsky, Yosefa. “Orientalist Representations: Palestinians and Arabs in Some Postcolonial Film and Literature.” In Cultural Encounters: Representing ‘Otherness,’ edited by Elizabeth Halam and Brian V. Street, 51-71. London and New York: Routledge, 2000.

Luchitskaja, Svetlana. “The Image of Muhammad in Latin Chronography of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries.” Journal of Medieval History 26, no. 2 (2000): 115-26.

Mamdani, Mahmood. Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: America, The Cold War, and The Roots of Terror. New York: Random House, 2004.

Matar, Nabil I. “Muslims in Seventeenth-Century England.” Journal of Islamic Studies 8, no. 1 (1997): 63-82.

_______. “Renaissance England and the Turban.” In Images of the Other: Europe and the Muslim World Before 1700, edited by David Blanks, 39-54. Cairo: The American University of Cairo Press, 1997.

May, Elaine Tyler. “Echoes of the Cold War: The Aftermath of September 11 at Home.” In September 11 in History, A Watershed Moment?, edited by Mary L. Dudziak, 35-54. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003.

McDonald, Nicola. “Eating People and the Alimentary Logic of Richard Coeur de Lion.” In Pulp Fictions of Medieval England: Essays in Popular Romance, edited by Nicola McDonald, 124-150. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.

Michael, John. “Beyond Us and Them: Identity and Terror from an Arab American’s Perspective.” The South Atlantic Quarterly 102 (Fall 2003): 702-28.

Miller, Lisa. “Why Do We Need Heaven?” Newsweek: August 12, 2002.

Mottahedeh, Roy P. “An Islamicist’s Critique.” In The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy, edited by Emran Qureshi and Michael A. Sells, 131-151. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Moughrabi, Foud M. “The Arab Basic Personality: A Critical Survey of the Literature.” International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 9 (1978): 99-112.

Munro, Dana Carleton. “The Western Attitude Toward Islam During the Period of the Crusades.” Speculum: A Journal of Mediaeval Studies 6, no. 3 (1931): 329-343.

Muscati, Sina Ali. “Arab/Muslim ‘Otherness’: The Role of Racial Constructions in the Gulf War and the Continuing Crisis with Iraq.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 22, no. 1 (2002): 131-148.

_______. “Reconstruing ‘Evil’: A Critical Assessment of Post-September 11 Political Discourse.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 23, no. 2 (2003): 249-269.

Norris, Andrew. “‘Us’ and ‘Them’: The Politics of American Self-Assertion after 9/11.” In The Philosophical Challenge of September 11, edited by Tom Rockmore, Joseph Margolis, and Armen T. Marsoobian, 19-41. Malden and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.

Not Without My Daughter, DVD. Directed by Brain Gilbert. Los Angeles, CA: MGM, 1991.

Nurullah, Abu Sadat. “Portrayal of Muslims in the Media: “ 24” and the ‘Othering’ process.” International Journal of Human Sciences 7, issue 1 (2010): 1021-46.

Nuzzo, Angelica. “Reasons for Conflict: Political Implications of a Definition of Terrorism,” in The Philosophical Challenge of September 11, edited by Tom Rockmore, Joseph Margolis, and Armen T. Marsoobian, 125-138. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.

O’Brien, Peter. European Perceptions of Islam and America from Saladin to George W. Bush: Europe’s Fragile Ego Uncovered. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Pasto, James. “Islam’s ‘Strange Secret Sharer’: Orientalism. Judaism, and the Jewish Question.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 40, no. 3 (1998): 434-74.

Patai, Raphael. The Arab Mind. New York: Heatherleigh Press, 2002.

Pintak, Lawrence. “Framing the Other: Worldview, Rhetoric and Media Dissonance Since 9/11.” In Muslims and the News Media, edited by Elizabeth Poole, 188-198. London: I.B. Tauris & Company, 2006.

Poole, Elizabeth, editor. Muslims and the News Media (London: I.B. Tauris & Company, 2006.

Progler, J.A. “The Utility of Islamic Imagery in the West.” Al-Tawhid 14 (Winter 1997), No. 4. (accessed December 12, 2009).

Puar, Jasbir K. and Amit S. Rai. “Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots.” Social Text 72, vol. 20, no. 3 (Fall 2002): 117-48.

Quinn, Frederick. The Sum of All Heresies: The Image of Islam in Western Thought. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Qureshi, Emran and Michael A. Sells, eds. The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Reeves, Minou. Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making. New York: New York University Press, 2003.

Reynolds, Gabriel Said. “Muhammad Through Christian Eyes.” Christianity Today: January 1, 2002.

Robinson, Neal. “The Fascination of Islam.” Islam and Christian Muslim Relations 13, no. 1 (2002): 97-110.

Rodinson, Maxime. Europe and the Mystique of Islam. Translated by Roger Veinus. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1987.

Roth, Norman. Jews, Visigoths and Muslims in Medieval Spain. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994.

Rustomji, Nerina. “American Visions of the Houri.” The Muslim World 97, issue 1 (2007): 79-92.

Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books, 1979.

_______. “Islam Through Western Eyes.” The Nation: April 26, 1980.

_______. “Intellectuals in the Post-Colonial World.” Salmagundi 70-1 (1986): 44-64.

_______. “A Devil Theory of Islam.” The Nation: August 12, 1996.

_______. Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World. New York: Pantheon Books, 1997.

Schildgen, Brenda Deen. Pagans, Tartars, Moslems, and Jews in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.

Servier, Andre. Islam and the Psychology of the Musulman. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1924.

Shaheen, Jack G. Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies A People. Northampton: Interlink Publishing Group, 2001.

Shelley, Percy Bysshe. Hellas: a lyrical drama. A reprint of the original edition published in 1822, with the author’s prologue and notes by various hands. Edited by Thomas J. Wise. New York: Phaeton Press, 1970.

Sheridan, Frances. “The History of Nourjahad.” In Three Oriental Tales, edited by Alan Richardson, 22-78. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.

Shohat, Ella. “Gender in Hollywood’s Orient.” Middle East Report, no. 162 (Jan/Feb 1990): 40-2.

Sivanandan, Ambalavander. “Race, Terror, and Civil Society.” Race and Class 47 (2006): 1-8.

Smith, Henry. “Luther and Islam.” The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 39, no. 3 (April 1923): 218-20.

Sommer, Annie Van, and Samuel M. Zwemer. Our Moslem Sisters: A Cry of Need from Lands of Darkness Interpreted by Those Who Heard It. New York: The Young People’s Missionary Movement and Fleming H Revell Company, 1907.

Spigel, Lynn. “Entertainment Wars: Television Culture after 9/11.” In The Selling of 9/11: How a National Tragedy Became a Commodity, edited by Dana Heller, 119-154. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Strickland, Debra Higgs. Saracens, Demons, and Jews: Making Monsters in Medieval Art. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Thompson, Kirsten Moana. Apocalyptic Dead: American Film at the Turn of the Millennium. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007.

Tolan, John Victor, editor. Medieval Christian Perceptions of Islam. New York: Routledge, 1996.

_______. Saracens: Islam in the Medieval European Imagination. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Toorawa, Shawkat M. “Muhammad, Muslims, and Islamophiles in Dante’s Commedia.” Muslim World 82, no.1-2 (Jan.-Feb. 1992): 133-43.

Trumpbour, John. “The Clash of Civilizations.” In The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy, edited by Emran Qureshi and Michael A. Sells, 88-130. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Vitkus, Daniel J., editor. Three Turk Plays from Early Modern England: Selimus, A Christian Turned Turk, and The Renegado. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.

_______. Turning Turk: English Theater and the Multicultural Mediterranean, 1570-1630. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Volpp, Leti. “The Citizen and the Terrorist.” In September 11 in History, A Watershed Moment? edited by Mary L. Dudziak, 147-162.

Weston, Lisa. “The Saracen and the Martyr: Embracing the Foreign in Hrotsvit’s Pelagius.” In Meeting the Foreign in the Middle Ages, edited by Albrecht Classen, 1-10. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Wheatcroft, Andrew. Infidels: A History of the Conflict Between Christendom and Islam. Westminster, Maryland: Random House, 2005.

Whitaker, Brian. “Its best use is as a doorstop.” The Guardian: May 24, 2004.

Wittkower, Rudolf. “Marvels of the East. A Study in the History of Monsters.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 5 (1942): 159-197.

Wolf, Kenneth Baxter, editor. Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1990.

_______. “Muhammad As Antichrist in Ninth-Century Cordoba.” In Christians, Muslims, and Jews in Medieval and Early Modern Spain, edited by Mark D. Meyerson and Edward D. English, 3-19. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000.

Wright, Rosemary Muir. Art and Antichrist in Medieval Europe. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1995.

Yin, Tung. “Jack Bauer Syndrome: Hollywood’s depiction of national security law.” Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal 17: 279-300.

Zizek, Slavoj. Welcome to the Desert of the Real. London and New York: Verso, 2002.

Zogby, James J. “The Other Anti Semitism: The Image of Islam in American Pop Culture.” Sojourners Magazine: Nov/Dec 1998.

Zwemer, Samuel and Mrs. Samuel Zwemer. Moslem Women. West Medford: The Central Committee on the United Study of Foreign Missions, 1926.

Zwemer, Samuel. Islam: A Challenge to Faith. New York: Laymen’s Missionary Movement and the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, 1907.

_______. Islam and the Cross: Selections From “ The Apostle to Islam.” Edited by Roger S. Greenway. Phillipsburg: P & R Publishing Company, 2002.




Other Bibliographies

Index of Bibliographies

Bibliography from the Appendices

Civil Liberties


Prejudice & Scapegoating


Islamophobia, Arabophobia, and Orientalism

Islamophobia, Arabophobia, and Orientalism:
Selected Research Bibliography by Sophia Shafi

Social Science Studies

Religious Beliefs

Apocalypticism & Millennialism
(Millenarianism & End Times)

Christian Right

Fundamentalism & Evangelicalism

Violence Attributed to Religious Beliefs

Social, Political, & Religious Movements

Social Movement Theories

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